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Q:

How does the Earth's rotation affect the speed of an aircraft?

A:

The rotation of the Earth does not affect the speed of an aircraft. Imagine riding on a train and jumping into the air. Would the train keep moving and you stayed in place in the air, ending up further back when you land? Of course not! Aircraft move through the atmosphere with the Earth's rotation, so its speed is not affedted . What would affect aircraft speed is the wind at that altitude, which can cause a flight from London to New Jersey to be two hours longer than the other way. 

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