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What does "fly-by-wire" mean?
"Fly-by-Wire" technology means electronic flight controls rather than manual ones.
Before this technology, pilots did everything on board the plane by themeselves. They piloted manually, which means that when they turned a certain device, it was literally connected to the control surfaces, and they would be able to control the plane how they wanted.
Since the 1960s, we've had fly-by-wire technology, which means that now, when a pilot turns or pulls a device, it sends an electronic signal to the right part of the plane, and a device there will move that part of the plane.